Fact Sheet Bilateral Relations

Fact Sheet







14,874 sq.km

Current Weather


Maximum temperature: 31 °C

Minimum temperature: 24 °C


1,268,671 (2016)

Languages (with %age of speakers, if available)

Tetum and Portuguese are official languages. Bahasa Indonesia and English are also spoken to some extent.

Religions (with %age, if available)

96.9% Roman Catholic; 2.2% Protestant/Evangelical; 0.3% Muslim, 0.6% others


Exchange rate with US$ & INR

US$ is the currency used.


Political Structure


Unitary semi-Presidential Republic.


The Head of State is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although his executive powers are somewhat limited, the President does have veto power over government's legislation. Following elections, the President appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the Prime Minister. As Head of Government, the Prime Minister presides over the cabinet.


The unicameral National Parliament members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms in a modified proportional representation system. The number of seats can vary from 52 to 65.

Head of State (President)

H.E. Mr. Francisco Guterres Lu Olo

(since 20 May 2017)

Head of Government (Prime Minister)

H.E. Mr. Taur Matan Ruak

(since 22 June 2018)

Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

H.E. Mr. Dionisio Babo Soares

(since 22 June 2018)






Since its independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of oil and gas resources in offshore waters has greatly supplemented government revenues. In June 2005, the National Parliament unanimously approved the creation of a Petroleum Fund to serve as a repository for all petroleum revenues and to preserve the value of Timor-Leste's petroleum wealth for future generations. The Fund held assets of US$ 16 billion in 2015. The economy continues to recover from the mid-2006 outbreak of violence and civil unrest, which disrupted both private and public sector economic activity. Government spending increased markedly from 2009 through 2012, primarily on basic infrastructure, including electricity and roads. However, political stalemate for an year that led to election in May 2018 and subsequent impasse in passing of budget for 2018 led to sharp decline in public spending and economic activity. The underlying economic policy challenge the country faces remains how best to use oil-and-gas wealth to lift the non-oil economy onto a higher growth path and to reduce poverty. On the strength of its oil-wealth, the economy has achieved real growth between 5-8% per year for the last several years. World Bank overview states that proportion of Timorese living in poverty declined from 50.4% in 2007 to an estimated 41.8% in 2014. At the internationally comparable extreme poverty line of $ 1.90 (in 2011 purchasing power parity dollars), poverty in Timor-Leste fell from 47.2% to 30.3% over the same period.


$1.7 billion (2017 est.)#

GDP per capita

$5,000 (2017 est.)#

GDP Growth Rate

0.8 % (2018 est..WB)

Total Trade



$758.6 million (2016 est.)#

$20 million (2016 est.)#

$558.6 million (2016 est.)#

#Source: CIA World Factbook

Bilateral Trade

Imports from India

Exports to India

US$ 3.42 million (2017-18)@

US$ 3.32 million (2017-18)@

US$ 0.10 million (2017-18)@

@ Source: Department of Commerce, India



Indian Origin/ Permanent Resident


Indian Expatriates (composition and any pertinent information that may be of interest)

About 30 Indians working as advisors in various Ministries, UN agencies and international donors. Some Indians are entrepreneurs and are engaged in trading and restaurant business. There are a few PIO in Timor Leste occupying high position including the Minister of Interior and Presidential Staff.

Indian Organizations







Government Organizations





The Indian community in Timor Leste has formed a friendship society called ‘Association of Indians in Timor Leste’ in February 2017.



January 2019

Fact Sheet

Embassy of India  
Gama Tower, Jl. HR. Rasuna Said Kav. C22,   
Karet Kuningan, Setiabudi, Kota Jakarta Selatan,  
Jakarta 12940.
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